# Approximate Procedures

## Ordinary Poisson Binomial Distribution

### Poisson Approximation

The Poisson Approximation (DC) approach is requested with method = "Poisson". It is based on a Poisson distribution, whose parameter is the sum of the probabilities of success.

set.seed(1)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)

dpbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "Poisson")
#>  [1] 2.263593e-16 8.154460e-15 1.468798e-13 1.763753e-12 1.588454e-11
#>  [6] 1.144462e-10 6.871428e-10 3.536273e-09 1.592402e-08 6.373926e-08
#> [11] 2.296169e-07 7.519830e-07 2.257479e-06 6.255718e-06 1.609704e-05
#> [16] 3.865908e-05 8.704191e-05 1.844490e-04 3.691482e-04 6.999128e-04
#> [21] 1.260697e-03 2.162661e-03 3.541299e-03 5.546660e-03 8.325631e-03
#> [26] 1.199704e-02 1.662255e-02 2.217842e-02 2.853445e-02 3.544609e-02
#> [31] 4.256414e-02 4.946284e-02 5.568342e-02 6.078674e-02 6.440607e-02
#> [36] 6.629115e-02 6.633610e-02 6.458699e-02 6.122916e-02 5.655755e-02
#> [41] 5.093630e-02 4.475488e-02 3.838734e-02 3.216003e-02 2.633059e-02
#> [46] 2.107875e-02 1.650760e-02 1.265269e-02 9.495953e-03 6.981348e-03
#> [51] 5.029979e-03 3.552981e-03 2.461424e-03 1.673044e-03 1.116119e-03
#> [56] 7.310458e-04 4.702766e-04 2.972182e-04 1.846053e-04 1.127169e-04
#> [61] 6.767601e-05 9.288901e-05
ppbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "Poisson")
#>  [1] 2.263593e-16 8.380820e-15 1.552606e-13 1.919013e-12 1.780355e-11
#>  [6] 1.322498e-10 8.193925e-10 4.355666e-09 2.027968e-08 8.401894e-08
#> [11] 3.136359e-07 1.065619e-06 3.323097e-06 9.578815e-06 2.567585e-05
#> [16] 6.433494e-05 1.513768e-04 3.358259e-04 7.049740e-04 1.404887e-03
#> [21] 2.665584e-03 4.828245e-03 8.369543e-03 1.391620e-02 2.224184e-02
#> [26] 3.423887e-02 5.086142e-02 7.303984e-02 1.015743e-01 1.370204e-01
#> [31] 1.795845e-01 2.290474e-01 2.847308e-01 3.455175e-01 4.099236e-01
#> [36] 4.762147e-01 5.425508e-01 6.071378e-01 6.683670e-01 7.249245e-01
#> [41] 7.758608e-01 8.206157e-01 8.590031e-01 8.911631e-01 9.174937e-01
#> [46] 9.385724e-01 9.550800e-01 9.677327e-01 9.772287e-01 9.842100e-01
#> [51] 9.892400e-01 9.927930e-01 9.952544e-01 9.969275e-01 9.980436e-01
#> [56] 9.987746e-01 9.992449e-01 9.995421e-01 9.997267e-01 9.998394e-01
#> [61] 9.999071e-01 1.000000e+00

A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the PA procedure increases with smaller probabilities of success. The reason is that the Poisson Binomial distribution approaches a Poisson distribution when the probabilities are very small.

set.seed(1)

# U(0, 1) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Poisson")
#>  [1] 0.0000150619 0.0001672374 0.0009284471 0.0034362888 0.0095385726
#>  [6] 0.0211820073 0.0391985129 0.0621763578 0.0862956727 0.1064633767
#> [11] 0.1182099310 0.1193204840 0.1104046811 0.0942969970 0.0747865595
#> [16] 0.0553587178 0.0384166744 0.0250913815 0.0154776776 0.0090449448
#> [21] 0.0101904160
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 4.401037e-11 7.873212e-09 3.624610e-07 7.952504e-06 1.014602e-04
#>  [6] 8.311558e-04 4.642470e-03 1.838525e-02 5.297347e-02 1.129135e-01
#> [11] 1.798080e-01 2.148719e-01 1.926468e-01 1.289706e-01 6.384266e-02
#> [16] 2.299142e-02 5.871700e-03 1.021142e-03 1.129421e-04 6.977021e-06
#> [21] 1.747603e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Poisson") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -9.555e-02  1.506e-05  9.437e-03  0.000e+00  2.407e-02  4.379e-02

# U(0, 0.01) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0, 0.01)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Poisson")
#>  [1]  9.095763e-01  8.620639e-02  4.085167e-03  1.290592e-04  3.057942e-06
#>  [6]  5.796418e-08  9.156063e-10  1.239697e-11  1.468825e-13  1.443290e-15
#> [11]  0.000000e+00  0.000000e+00  0.000000e+00 -1.110223e-16  0.000000e+00
#> [16]  1.110223e-16 -1.110223e-16  1.110223e-16 -1.110223e-16  1.110223e-16
#> [21]  0.000000e+00
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 9.093051e-01 8.672423e-02 3.861917e-03 1.066765e-04 2.048094e-06
#>  [6] 2.902198e-08 3.145829e-10 2.667571e-12 1.794592e-14 9.656258e-17
#> [11] 4.170114e-19 1.444465e-21 3.994453e-24 8.738444e-27 1.490372e-29
#> [16] 1.938487e-32 1.859939e-35 1.249654e-38 5.381374e-42 1.245845e-45
#> [21] 9.511846e-50
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Poisson") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -5.178e-04  0.000e+00  0.000e+00  0.000e+00  6.000e-10  2.712e-04

### Arithmetic Mean Binomial Approximation

The Arithmetic Mean Binomial Approximation (AMBA) approach is requested with method = "Mean". It is based on a Binomial distribution, whose parameter is the arithmetic mean of the probabilities of success.

set.seed(1)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)
mean(rep(pp, wt))
#> [1] 0.5905641

dpbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "Mean")
#>  [1] 2.204668e-24 1.939788e-22 8.393759e-21 2.381049e-19 4.979863e-18
#>  [6] 8.188480e-17 1.102354e-15 1.249300e-14 1.216331e-13 1.033156e-12
#> [11] 7.749086e-12 5.182139e-11 3.114432e-10 1.693217e-09 8.373498e-09
#> [16] 3.784379e-08 1.569327e-07 5.991812e-07 2.112610e-06 6.896287e-06
#> [21] 2.088890e-05 5.882491e-05 1.542694e-04 3.773093e-04 8.616897e-04
#> [26] 1.839474e-03 3.673702e-03 6.868933e-03 1.203071e-02 1.974641e-02
#> [31] 3.038072e-02 4.382068e-02 5.925587e-02 7.510979e-02 8.921887e-02
#> [36] 9.927353e-02 1.034154e-01 1.007871e-01 9.181496e-02 7.810121e-02
#> [41] 6.195859e-02 4.577391e-02 3.143980e-02 2.003761e-02 1.182352e-02
#> [46] 6.442647e-03 3.232269e-03 1.487928e-03 6.259647e-04 2.395401e-04
#> [51] 8.292214e-05 2.579729e-05 7.155695e-06 1.752667e-06 3.745215e-07
#> [56] 6.875325e-08 1.062521e-08 1.344354e-09 1.337294e-10 9.807932e-12
#> [61] 4.716227e-13 1.110223e-14
ppbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "Mean")
#>  [1] 2.204668e-24 1.961834e-22 8.589942e-21 2.466948e-19 5.226557e-18
#>  [6] 8.711136e-17 1.189465e-15 1.368247e-14 1.353155e-13 1.168472e-12
#> [11] 8.917558e-12 6.073895e-11 3.721822e-10 2.065399e-09 1.043890e-08
#> [16] 4.828268e-08 2.052154e-07 8.043966e-07 2.917007e-06 9.813294e-06
#> [21] 3.070220e-05 8.952711e-05 2.437965e-04 6.211058e-04 1.482796e-03
#> [26] 3.322270e-03 6.995972e-03 1.386490e-02 2.589561e-02 4.564203e-02
#> [31] 7.602274e-02 1.198434e-01 1.790993e-01 2.542091e-01 3.434279e-01
#> [36] 4.427015e-01 5.461169e-01 6.469040e-01 7.387189e-01 8.168201e-01
#> [41] 8.787787e-01 9.245526e-01 9.559924e-01 9.760300e-01 9.878536e-01
#> [46] 9.942962e-01 9.975285e-01 9.990164e-01 9.996424e-01 9.998819e-01
#> [51] 9.999648e-01 9.999906e-01 9.999978e-01 9.999995e-01 9.999999e-01
#> [56] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [61] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the AMBA procedure increases when the probabilities of success are closer to each other. The reason is that, although the expectation remains unchanged, the distributionâ€™s variance becomes smaller the less the probabilities differ. Since this variance is minimized by equal probabilities (but still underestimated), the AMBA method is best suited for situations with very similar probabilities of success.

set.seed(1)

# U(0, 1) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Mean")
#>  [1] 9.203176e-08 2.297178e-06 2.723611e-05 2.039497e-04 1.081780e-03
#>  [6] 4.320318e-03 1.347977e-02 3.364646e-02 6.823695e-02 1.135495e-01
#> [11] 1.558851e-01 1.768638e-01 1.655492e-01 1.271454e-01 7.934094e-02
#> [16] 3.960811e-02 1.544760e-02 4.536271e-03 9.435709e-04 1.239589e-04
#> [21] 7.735255e-06
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 4.401037e-11 7.873212e-09 3.624610e-07 7.952504e-06 1.014602e-04
#>  [6] 8.311558e-04 4.642470e-03 1.838525e-02 5.297347e-02 1.129135e-01
#> [11] 1.798080e-01 2.148719e-01 1.926468e-01 1.289706e-01 6.384266e-02
#> [16] 2.299142e-02 5.871700e-03 1.021142e-03 1.129421e-04 6.977021e-06
#> [21] 1.747603e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Mean") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -3.801e-02  2.290e-06  6.360e-04  0.000e+00  8.837e-03  1.662e-02

# U(0.3, 0.5) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0.3, 0.5)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Mean")
#>  [1] 4.348271e-05 5.672598e-04 3.515127e-03 1.375712e-02 3.813748e-02
#>  [6] 7.960444e-02 1.298114e-01 1.693472e-01 1.795010e-01 1.561137e-01
#> [11] 1.120132e-01 6.642197e-02 3.249439e-02 1.304339e-02 4.253984e-03
#> [16] 1.109919e-03 2.262438e-04 3.472347e-05 3.774915e-06 2.591904e-07
#> [21] 8.453263e-09
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 4.015121e-05 5.344728e-04 3.370391e-03 1.338738e-02 3.756479e-02
#>  [6] 7.915145e-02 1.299445e-01 1.702071e-01 1.806555e-01 1.569062e-01
#> [11] 1.121277e-01 6.604356e-02 3.200604e-02 1.269255e-02 4.078679e-03
#> [16] 1.045709e-03 2.088926e-04 3.133484e-05 3.320483e-06 2.216332e-07
#> [21] 7.008006e-09
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Mean") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -1.155e-03  1.400e-09  1.735e-05  0.000e+00  3.508e-04  5.727e-04

# U(0.39, 0.41) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0.39, 0.41)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Mean")
#>  [1] 3.638616e-05 4.854405e-04 3.076305e-03 1.231262e-02 3.490673e-02
#>  [6] 7.451247e-02 1.242621e-01 1.657824e-01 1.797056e-01 1.598344e-01
#> [11] 1.172824e-01 7.112295e-02 3.558286e-02 1.460687e-02 4.871885e-03
#> [16] 1.299951e-03 2.709859e-04 4.253314e-05 4.728746e-06 3.320414e-07
#> [21] 1.107470e-08
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 3.636149e-05 4.851935e-04 3.075192e-03 1.230970e-02 3.490204e-02
#>  [6] 7.450845e-02 1.242626e-01 1.657891e-01 1.797153e-01 1.598415e-01
#> [11] 1.172840e-01 7.112011e-02 3.557873e-02 1.460374e-02 4.870251e-03
#> [16] 1.299328e-03 2.708111e-04 4.249771e-05 4.723809e-06 3.316172e-07
#> [21] 1.105772e-08
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Mean") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -9.641e-06  1.700e-11  1.747e-07  0.000e+00  2.844e-06  4.689e-06

### Geometric Mean Binomial Approximation - Variant A

The Geometric Mean Binomial Approximation (Variant A) (GMBA-A) approach is requested with method = "GeoMean". It is based on a Binomial distribution, whose parameter is the geometric mean of the probabilities of success: $\hat{p} = \sqrt[n]{p_1 \cdot ... \cdot p_n}$

set.seed(1)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)
prod(rep(pp, wt))^(1/sum(wt))
#> [1] 0.4669916

dpbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "GeoMean")
#>  [1] 2.141782e-17 1.144670e-15 3.008684e-14 5.184208e-13 6.586057e-12
#>  [6] 6.578175e-11 5.379195e-10 3.703028e-09 2.189958e-08 1.129911e-07
#> [11] 5.147813e-07 2.091103e-06 7.633772e-06 2.520966e-05 7.572779e-05
#> [16] 2.078916e-04 5.236606e-04 1.214475e-03 2.601021e-03 5.157435e-03
#> [21] 9.489168e-03 1.623184e-02 2.585712e-02 3.841422e-02 5.328923e-02
#> [26] 6.909972e-02 8.382634e-02 9.520502e-02 1.012875e-01 1.009827e-01
#> [31] 9.437363e-02 8.268481e-02 6.791600e-02 5.229152e-02 3.772988e-02
#> [36] 2.550094e-02 1.613623e-02 9.552467e-03 5.285892e-03 2.731219e-03
#> [41] 1.316117e-03 5.906156e-04 2.464113e-04 9.539397e-05 3.419132e-05
#> [46] 1.131690e-05 3.448772e-06 9.643463e-07 2.464308e-07 5.728188e-08
#> [51] 1.204491e-08 2.276152e-09 3.835067e-10 5.705769e-11 7.406076e-12
#> [56] 8.257839e-13 7.760459e-14 5.884182e-15 4.440892e-16 0.000000e+00
#> [61] 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
ppbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "GeoMean")
#>  [1] 2.141782e-17 1.166088e-15 3.125293e-14 5.496737e-13 7.135731e-12
#>  [6] 7.291748e-11 6.108370e-10 4.313865e-09 2.621345e-08 1.392046e-07
#> [11] 6.539859e-07 2.745088e-06 1.037886e-05 3.558852e-05 1.113163e-04
#> [16] 3.192079e-04 8.428685e-04 2.057343e-03 4.658364e-03 9.815799e-03
#> [21] 1.930497e-02 3.553681e-02 6.139393e-02 9.980815e-02 1.530974e-01
#> [26] 2.221971e-01 3.060234e-01 4.012285e-01 5.025160e-01 6.034986e-01
#> [31] 6.978723e-01 7.805571e-01 8.484731e-01 9.007646e-01 9.384945e-01
#> [36] 9.639954e-01 9.801316e-01 9.896841e-01 9.949700e-01 9.977012e-01
#> [41] 9.990173e-01 9.996080e-01 9.998544e-01 9.999498e-01 9.999840e-01
#> [46] 9.999953e-01 9.999987e-01 9.999997e-01 9.999999e-01 1.000000e+00
#> [51] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [56] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [61] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

It is known that the geometric mean of the probabilities of success is always smaller than their arithmetic mean. Thus, we get a stochastically smaller binomial distribution. A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the GMBA-A procedure increases when the probabilities of success are closer to each other:

set.seed(1)

# U(0, 1) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMean")
#>  [1] 4.557123e-06 7.742984e-05 6.249130e-04 3.185359e-03 1.150098e-02
#>  [6] 3.126602e-02 6.640491e-02 1.128282e-01 1.557610e-01 1.764351e-01
#> [11] 1.648790e-01 1.273387e-01 8.113517e-02 4.241734e-02 1.801777e-02
#> [16] 6.122779e-03 1.625497e-03 3.249263e-04 4.600672e-05 4.114199e-06
#> [21] 1.747603e-07
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 4.401037e-11 7.873212e-09 3.624610e-07 7.952504e-06 1.014602e-04
#>  [6] 8.311558e-04 4.642470e-03 1.838525e-02 5.297347e-02 1.129135e-01
#> [11] 1.798080e-01 2.148719e-01 1.926468e-01 1.289706e-01 6.384266e-02
#> [16] 2.299142e-02 5.871700e-03 1.021142e-03 1.129421e-04 6.977021e-06
#> [21] 1.747603e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMean") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>     Min.  1st Qu.   Median     Mean  3rd Qu.     Max.
#> -0.11151 -0.01493  0.00000  0.00000  0.01140  0.10279

# U(0.4, 0.6) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0.4, 0.6)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMean")
#>  [1] 1.317886e-06 2.551200e-05 2.345875e-04 1.362363e-03 5.604265e-03
#>  [6] 1.735823e-02 4.200318e-02 8.131092e-02 1.278907e-01 1.650496e-01
#> [11] 1.757292e-01 1.546280e-01 1.122499e-01 6.686047e-02 3.235759e-02
#> [16] 1.252775e-02 3.789307e-03 8.629936e-04 1.392173e-04 1.418425e-05
#> [21] 6.864565e-07
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 1.046635e-06 2.098187e-05 1.993006e-04 1.192678e-03 5.043114e-03
#>  [6] 1.601621e-02 3.964022e-02 7.829406e-02 1.253351e-01 1.642218e-01
#> [11] 1.770816e-01 1.574210e-01 1.151700e-01 6.896627e-02 3.347297e-02
#> [16] 1.296524e-02 3.913788e-03 8.873960e-04 1.421738e-04 1.435144e-05
#> [21] 6.864565e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMean") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -0.0029201 -0.0004375  0.0000000  0.0000000  0.0005612  0.0030169

# U(0.49, 0.51) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0.49, 0.51)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMean")
#>  [1] 9.491177e-07 1.899145e-05 1.805052e-04 1.083550e-03 4.607292e-03
#>  [6] 1.475040e-02 3.689366e-02 7.382266e-02 1.200193e-01 1.601024e-01
#> [11] 1.761970e-01 1.602558e-01 1.202494e-01 7.403508e-02 3.703527e-02
#> [16] 1.482120e-02 4.633845e-03 1.090839e-03 1.818935e-04 1.915586e-05
#> [21] 9.582517e-07
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 9.472606e-07 1.895984e-05 1.802539e-04 1.082315e-03 4.603107e-03
#>  [6] 1.474011e-02 3.687497e-02 7.379784e-02 1.199969e-01 1.600932e-01
#> [11] 1.762060e-01 1.602781e-01 1.202742e-01 7.405383e-02 3.704562e-02
#> [16] 1.482542e-02 4.635093e-03 1.091093e-03 1.819256e-04 1.915775e-05
#> [21] 9.582517e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMean") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -2.485e-05 -4.219e-06  0.000e+00  0.000e+00  4.185e-06  2.482e-05

### Geometric Mean Binomial Approximation - Variant B

The Geometric Mean Binomial Approximation (Variant B) (GMBA-B) approach is requested with method = "GeoMeanCounter". It is based on a Binomial distribution, whose parameter is 1 minus the geometric mean of the probabilities of failure: $\hat{p} = 1 - \sqrt[n]{(1 - p_1) \cdot ... \cdot (1 - p_n)}$

set.seed(1)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)
1 - prod(1 - rep(pp, wt))^(1/sum(wt))
#> [1] 0.7275426

dpbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "GeoMeanCounter")
#>  [1] 3.574462e-35 5.822379e-33 4.664248e-31 2.449471e-29 9.484189e-28
#>  [6] 2.887121e-26 7.195512e-25 1.509685e-23 2.721134e-22 4.279009e-21
#> [11] 5.941642e-20 7.356037e-19 8.184508e-18 8.237686e-17 7.541858e-16
#> [16] 6.310225e-15 4.844429e-14 3.424255e-13 2.235148e-12 1.350769e-11
#> [21] 7.574609e-11 3.948978e-10 1.917264e-09 8.681177e-09 3.670379e-08
#> [26] 1.450549e-07 5.363170e-07 1.856461e-06 6.019586e-06 1.829121e-05
#> [31] 5.209921e-05 1.391205e-04 3.482749e-04 8.172712e-04 1.797236e-03
#> [36] 3.702208e-03 7.139892e-03 1.288219e-02 2.172588e-02 3.421374e-02
#> [41] 5.024851e-02 6.872559e-02 8.738947e-02 1.031108e-01 1.126377e-01
#> [46] 1.136267e-01 1.055364e-01 8.994057e-02 7.004907e-02 4.962603e-02
#> [51] 3.180393e-02 1.831737e-02 9.406320e-03 4.265268e-03 1.687339e-03
#> [56] 5.734528e-04 1.640669e-04 3.843049e-05 7.077304e-06 9.609416e-07
#> [61] 8.553338e-08 3.744258e-09
ppbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "GeoMeanCounter")
#>  [1] 3.574462e-35 5.858123e-33 4.722829e-31 2.496699e-29 9.733859e-28
#>  [6] 2.984460e-26 7.493958e-25 1.584624e-23 2.879597e-22 4.566969e-21
#> [11] 6.398339e-20 7.995871e-19 8.984095e-18 9.136095e-17 8.455467e-16
#> [16] 7.155772e-15 5.560007e-14 3.980256e-13 2.633173e-12 1.614086e-11
#> [21] 9.188695e-11 4.867847e-10 2.404049e-09 1.108523e-08 4.778901e-08
#> [26] 1.928440e-07 7.291610e-07 2.585622e-06 8.605207e-06 2.689642e-05
#> [31] 7.899562e-05 2.181161e-04 5.663910e-04 1.383662e-03 3.180899e-03
#> [36] 6.883107e-03 1.402300e-02 2.690519e-02 4.863107e-02 8.284481e-02
#> [41] 1.330933e-01 2.018189e-01 2.892084e-01 3.923192e-01 5.049569e-01
#> [46] 6.185836e-01 7.241200e-01 8.140606e-01 8.841097e-01 9.337357e-01
#> [51] 9.655396e-01 9.838570e-01 9.932633e-01 9.975286e-01 9.992159e-01
#> [56] 9.997894e-01 9.999534e-01 9.999919e-01 9.999989e-01 9.999999e-01
#> [61] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

It is known that the geometric mean of the probabilities of failure is always smaller than their arithmetic mean. As a result, 1 minus the geometric mean is larger than 1 minus the arithmetic mean. Thus, we get a stochastically larger binomial distribution. A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the GMBA-B procedure again increases when the probabilities of success are closer to each other:

set.seed(1)

# U(0, 1) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMeanCounter")
#>  [1] 4.401037e-11 2.019854e-09 4.403304e-08 6.062685e-07 5.912743e-06
#>  [6] 4.341843e-05 2.490859e-04 1.143179e-03 4.262876e-03 1.304297e-02
#> [11] 3.292337e-02 6.868258e-02 1.182069e-01 1.669263e-01 1.915269e-01
#> [16] 1.758024e-01 1.260695e-01 6.807004e-02 2.603394e-02 6.288561e-03
#> [21] 7.215333e-04
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 4.401037e-11 7.873212e-09 3.624610e-07 7.952504e-06 1.014602e-04
#>  [6] 8.311558e-04 4.642470e-03 1.838525e-02 5.297347e-02 1.129135e-01
#> [11] 1.798080e-01 2.148719e-01 1.926468e-01 1.289706e-01 6.384266e-02
#> [16] 2.299142e-02 5.871700e-03 1.021142e-03 1.129421e-04 6.977021e-06
#> [21] 1.747603e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMeanCounter") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -1.469e-01 -1.724e-02 -3.200e-07  0.000e+00  2.592e-02  1.528e-01

# U(0.4, 0.6) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0.4, 0.6)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMeanCounter")
#>  [1] 1.046635e-06 2.073844e-05 1.951870e-04 1.160254e-03 4.885321e-03
#>  [6] 1.548796e-02 3.836059e-02 7.600922e-02 1.223688e-01 1.616443e-01
#> [11] 1.761588e-01 1.586582e-01 1.178895e-01 7.187414e-02 3.560358e-02
#> [16] 1.410928e-02 4.368234e-03 1.018282e-03 1.681387e-04 1.753458e-05
#> [21] 8.685930e-07
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 1.046635e-06 2.098187e-05 1.993006e-04 1.192678e-03 5.043114e-03
#>  [6] 1.601621e-02 3.964022e-02 7.829406e-02 1.253351e-01 1.642218e-01
#> [11] 1.770816e-01 1.574210e-01 1.151700e-01 6.896627e-02 3.347297e-02
#> [16] 1.296524e-02 3.913788e-03 8.873960e-04 1.421738e-04 1.435144e-05
#> [21] 6.864565e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMeanCounter") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -0.0029663 -0.0005283  0.0000000  0.0000000  0.0004544  0.0029079

# U(0.49, 0.51) random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(20, 0.49, 0.51)
dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMeanCounter")
#>  [1] 9.472606e-07 1.895800e-05 1.802225e-04 1.082065e-03 4.601880e-03
#>  [6] 1.473596e-02 3.686475e-02 7.377926e-02 1.199722e-01 1.600709e-01
#> [11] 1.761969e-01 1.602871e-01 1.202964e-01 7.407854e-02 3.706427e-02
#> [16] 1.483571e-02 4.639289e-03 1.092334e-03 1.821786e-04 1.918963e-05
#> [21] 9.601293e-07
dpbinom(NULL, pp)
#>  [1] 9.472606e-07 1.895984e-05 1.802539e-04 1.082315e-03 4.603107e-03
#>  [6] 1.474011e-02 3.687497e-02 7.379784e-02 1.199969e-01 1.600932e-01
#> [11] 1.762060e-01 1.602781e-01 1.202742e-01 7.405383e-02 3.704562e-02
#> [16] 1.482542e-02 4.635093e-03 1.091093e-03 1.819256e-04 1.915775e-05
#> [21] 9.582517e-07
summary(dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "GeoMeanCounter") - dpbinom(NULL, pp))
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -2.467e-05 -4.159e-06  0.000e+00  0.000e+00  4.196e-06  2.470e-05

### Normal Approximation

The Normal Approximation (NA) approach is requested with method = "Normal". It is based on a Normal distribution, whose parameters are derived from the theoretical mean and variance of the input probabilities of success.

set.seed(1)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)

dpbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "Normal")
#>  [1] 2.552770e-32 1.207834e-30 5.219650e-29 2.022022e-27 7.021785e-26
#>  [6] 2.185917e-24 6.100302e-23 1.526188e-21 3.423032e-20 6.882841e-19
#> [11] 1.240755e-17 2.005270e-16 2.905604e-15 3.774712e-14 4.396661e-13
#> [16] 4.591569e-12 4.299381e-11 3.609645e-10 2.717342e-09 1.834224e-08
#> [21] 1.110185e-07 6.025326e-07 2.932337e-06 1.279682e-05 5.007841e-05
#> [26] 1.757379e-04 5.530339e-04 1.560683e-03 3.949650e-03 8.963710e-03
#> [31] 1.824341e-02 3.329786e-02 5.450317e-02 8.000636e-02 1.053238e-01
#> [36] 1.243451e-01 1.316535e-01 1.250080e-01 1.064497e-01 8.129267e-02
#> [41] 5.567468e-02 3.419491e-02 1.883477e-02 9.303614e-03 4.121280e-03
#> [46] 1.637186e-03 5.832371e-04 1.863241e-04 5.337829e-05 1.371282e-05
#> [51] 3.159002e-06 6.525712e-07 1.208800e-07 2.007813e-08 2.990389e-09
#> [56] 3.993563e-10 4.782064e-11 5.134337e-12 4.942713e-13 4.263256e-14
#> [61] 3.330669e-15 2.220446e-16
ppbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "Normal")
#>  [1] 2.552770e-32 1.233362e-30 5.342987e-29 2.075452e-27 7.229330e-26
#>  [6] 2.258210e-24 6.326123e-23 1.589449e-21 3.581977e-20 7.241039e-19
#> [11] 1.313165e-17 2.136587e-16 3.119262e-15 4.086639e-14 4.805325e-13
#> [16] 5.072102e-12 4.806591e-11 4.090305e-10 3.126373e-09 2.146861e-08
#> [21] 1.324871e-07 7.350197e-07 3.667357e-06 1.646417e-05 6.654258e-05
#> [26] 2.422805e-04 7.953144e-04 2.355997e-03 6.305647e-03 1.526936e-02
#> [31] 3.351276e-02 6.681062e-02 1.213138e-01 2.013201e-01 3.066439e-01
#> [36] 4.309891e-01 5.626426e-01 6.876506e-01 7.941003e-01 8.753930e-01
#> [41] 9.310676e-01 9.652625e-01 9.840973e-01 9.934009e-01 9.975222e-01
#> [46] 9.991594e-01 9.997426e-01 9.999290e-01 9.999823e-01 9.999960e-01
#> [51] 9.999992e-01 9.999999e-01 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [56] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [61] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the NA procedure increases with larger numbers of probabilities of success:

set.seed(1)

# 10 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(10)
dpn <- dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Normal")
dpd <- dpbinom(NULL, pp)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -0.0053305 -0.0010422  0.0005271  0.0000000  0.0016579  0.0026553

# 1000 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(1000)
dpn <- dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Normal")
dpd <- dpbinom(NULL, pp)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -8.412e-06  0.000e+00  2.656e-09  0.000e+00  6.073e-07  3.815e-06

# 100000 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(100000)
dpn <- dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "Normal")
dpd <- dpbinom(NULL, pp)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -4.484e-09  0.000e+00  8.990e-13  0.000e+00  4.919e-10  2.734e-09

### Refined Normal Approximation

The Refined Normal Approximation (RNA) approach is requested with method = "RefinedNormal". It is based on a Normal distribution, whose parameters are derived from the theoretical mean, variance and skewness of the input probabilities of success.

set.seed(1)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)

dpbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "RefinedNormal")
#>  [1] 2.579548e-31 1.128297e-29 4.507210e-28 1.611452e-26 5.156486e-25
#>  [6] 1.476806e-23 3.785627e-22 8.685911e-21 1.783953e-19 3.280039e-18
#> [11] 5.399492e-17 7.959230e-16 1.050796e-14 1.242802e-13 1.317210e-12
#> [16] 1.251531e-11 1.066498e-10 8.155390e-10 5.599786e-09 3.455053e-08
#> [21] 1.917106e-07 9.574753e-07 4.308224e-06 1.748069e-05 6.401569e-05
#> [26] 2.117447e-04 6.329842e-04 1.710740e-03 4.180480e-03 9.234968e-03
#> [31] 1.843341e-02 3.322175e-02 5.401115e-02 7.912655e-02 1.043358e-01
#> [36] 1.236782e-01 1.316360e-01 1.256489e-01 1.074322e-01 8.218619e-02
#> [41] 5.618825e-02 3.428872e-02 1.865323e-02 9.032795e-03 3.886960e-03
#> [46] 1.483178e-03 5.004545e-04 1.487517e-04 3.873113e-05 8.757189e-06
#> [51] 1.693868e-06 2.722346e-07 3.388544e-08 2.218356e-09 0.000000e+00
#> [56] 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
#> [61] 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
ppbinom(NULL, pp, wt, "RefinedNormal")
#>  [1] 2.579548e-31 1.154092e-29 4.622620e-28 1.657678e-26 5.322254e-25
#>  [6] 1.530028e-23 3.938629e-22 9.079774e-21 1.874750e-19 3.467514e-18
#> [11] 5.746244e-17 8.533855e-16 1.136134e-14 1.356415e-13 1.452852e-12
#> [16] 1.396817e-11 1.206179e-10 9.361569e-10 6.535943e-09 4.108647e-08
#> [21] 2.327971e-07 1.190272e-06 5.498496e-06 2.297918e-05 8.699487e-05
#> [26] 2.987396e-04 9.317238e-04 2.642463e-03 6.822944e-03 1.605791e-02
#> [31] 3.449132e-02 6.771307e-02 1.217242e-01 2.008508e-01 3.051866e-01
#> [36] 4.288648e-01 5.605008e-01 6.861497e-01 7.935820e-01 8.757682e-01
#> [41] 9.319564e-01 9.662451e-01 9.848984e-01 9.939312e-01 9.978181e-01
#> [46] 9.993013e-01 9.998018e-01 9.999505e-01 9.999892e-01 9.999980e-01
#> [51] 9.999997e-01 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [56] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [61] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the RNA procedure increases with larger numbers of probabilities of success:

set.seed(1)

# 10 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(10)
dpn <- dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "RefinedNormal")
dpd <- dpbinom(NULL, pp)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -0.0039538 -0.0006920  0.0003543  0.0000000  0.0017167  0.0023597

# 1000 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(1000)
dpn <- dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "RefinedNormal")
dpd <- dpbinom(NULL, pp)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -2.974e-06  0.000e+00  3.181e-10  0.000e+00  3.747e-07  2.270e-06

# 100000 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(100000)
dpn <- dpbinom(NULL, pp, method = "RefinedNormal")
dpd <- dpbinom(NULL, pp)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -3.126e-09  0.000e+00  6.337e-13  0.000e+00  4.632e-10  2.293e-09

### Processing Speed Comparisons

To assess the performance of the approximation procedures, we use the microbenchmark package. Each algorithm has to calculate the PMF repeatedly based on random probability vectors. The run times are then summarized in a table that presents, among other statistics, their minima, maxima and means. The following results were recorded on an AMD Ryzen 7 1800X with 32 GiB of RAM and Ubuntu 18.04.4 (running inside a VirtualBox VM; the host system is Windows 10 Education).

library(microbenchmark)
set.seed(1)

f1 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "Normal")
f2 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "RefinedNormal")
f3 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "Poisson")
f4 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "Mean")
f5 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "GeoMean")
f6 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "GeoMeanCounter")
f7 <- function() dpbinom(NULL, runif(4000), method = "DivideFFT")

microbenchmark(f1(), f2(), f3(), f4(), f5(), f6(), f7())
#> Unit: microseconds
#>  expr      min        lq     mean   median        uq       max neval  cld
#>  f1()  547.002  568.4010  676.753  597.352  624.8015  4260.102   100 a
#>  f2()  699.601  718.7015  794.284  754.451  779.5010  3617.301   100 a
#>  f3() 1276.000 1298.9010 1425.546 1336.901 1387.3505  5028.102   100  b
#>  f4() 1549.000 1569.6505 1711.965 1626.801 1705.9510  5222.501   100  bc
#>  f5() 1666.201 1701.7510 1863.317 1743.201 1831.7510  7786.702   100   c
#>  f6() 1685.801 1735.6010 1802.258 1795.151 1834.6510  3099.201   100   c
#>  f7() 6573.602 6881.7005 7715.742 6990.301 7233.6010 13663.102   100    d

Clearly, the NA procedure is the fastest, followed by the RNA method, which needs roughly 30-40% more time, and the PA, AMBA and GMBA approaches that need almost twice as long as the NA algorithm. AMBA, GMBA-A and GMBA-B procedures exhibit almost equal mean execution speed, with the AMBA algorithm being slightly faster. All of the approximation procedures outperform the fastest exact approach, DC-FFT, by far. Even the slowest approximate algorithm is around 4x as fast as DC-FFT.

## Generalized Poisson Binomial Distribution

### Generalized Normal Approximation

The Generalized Normal Approximation (G-NA) approach is requested with method = "Normal". It is based on a Normal distribution, whose parameters are derived from the theoretical mean and variance of the input probabilities of success (see Introduction.

set.seed(2)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)
va <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)

dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, wt, "Normal")
#>   [1] 5.607923e-34 8.868899e-34 2.266907e-33 5.759009e-33 1.454159e-32
#>   [6] 3.649437e-32 9.103112e-32 2.256856e-31 5.561194e-31 1.362016e-30
#>  [11] 3.315478e-30 8.021587e-30 1.928965e-29 4.610400e-29 1.095224e-28
#>  [16] 2.585931e-28 6.068497e-28 1.415453e-27 3.281403e-27 7.560907e-27
#>  [21] 1.731562e-26 3.941418e-26 8.916960e-26 2.005077e-25 4.481212e-25
#>  [26] 9.954281e-25 2.197730e-24 4.822684e-24 1.051849e-23 2.280173e-23
#>  [31] 4.912836e-23 1.052075e-22 2.239296e-22 4.737247e-22 9.960718e-22
#>  [36] 2.081639e-21 4.323844e-21 8.926573e-21 1.831680e-20 3.735634e-20
#>  [41] 7.572323e-20 1.525612e-19 3.054984e-19 6.080284e-19 1.202787e-18
#>  [46] 2.364851e-18 4.621350e-18 8.976023e-18 1.732802e-17 3.324790e-17
#>  [51] 6.340586e-17 1.201834e-16 2.264174e-16 4.239603e-16 7.890246e-16
#>  [56] 1.459506e-15 2.683313e-15 4.903282e-15 8.905378e-15 1.607563e-14
#>  [61] 2.884254e-14 5.143387e-14 9.116221e-14 1.605945e-13 2.811877e-13
#>  [66] 4.893417e-13 8.464047e-13 1.455104e-12 2.486337e-12 4.222561e-12
#>  [71] 7.127579e-12 1.195799e-11 1.993996e-11 3.304764e-11 5.443857e-11
#>  [76] 8.912982e-11 1.450405e-10 2.345880e-10 3.771137e-10 6.025440e-10
#>  [81] 9.568753e-10 1.510330e-09 2.369401e-09 3.694497e-09 5.725614e-09
#>  [86] 8.819398e-09 1.350224e-08 2.054578e-08 3.107347e-08 4.670967e-08
#>  [91] 6.978689e-08 1.036313e-07 1.529531e-07 2.243755e-07 3.271469e-07
#>  [96] 4.740893e-07 6.828536e-07 9.775638e-07 1.390954e-06 1.967117e-06
#> [101] 2.765018e-06 3.862920e-06 5.363935e-06 7.402890e-06 1.015475e-05
#> [106] 1.384482e-05 1.876097e-05 2.526814e-05 3.382528e-05 4.500488e-05
#> [111] 5.951520e-05 7.822512e-05 1.021915e-04 1.326884e-04 1.712386e-04
#> [116] 2.196444e-04 2.800198e-04 3.548195e-04 4.468649e-04 5.593647e-04
#> [121] 6.959275e-04 8.605635e-04 1.057674e-03 1.292025e-03 1.568701e-03
#> [126] 1.893038e-03 2.270537e-03 2.706749e-03 3.207136e-03 3.776912e-03
#> [131] 4.420856e-03 5.143112e-03 5.946968e-03 6.834635e-03 7.807017e-03
#> [136] 8.863494e-03 1.000172e-02 1.121747e-02 1.250446e-02 1.385431e-02
#> [141] 1.525651e-02 1.669842e-02 1.816543e-02 1.964112e-02 2.110749e-02
#> [146] 2.254536e-02 2.393468e-02 2.525505e-02 2.648616e-02 2.760831e-02
#> [151] 2.860294e-02 2.945314e-02 3.014411e-02 3.066363e-02 3.100235e-02
#> [156] 3.115414e-02 3.111624e-02 3.088932e-02 3.047753e-02 2.988830e-02
#> [161] 2.913216e-02 2.822242e-02 2.717477e-02 2.600684e-02 2.473770e-02
#> [166] 2.338736e-02 2.197622e-02 2.052462e-02 1.905228e-02 1.757799e-02
#> [171] 1.611912e-02 1.469141e-02 1.330871e-02 1.198280e-02 1.072335e-02
#> [176] 9.537908e-03 8.431904e-03 7.408807e-03 6.470249e-03 5.616215e-03
#> [181] 4.845254e-03 4.154698e-03 3.540890e-03 2.999407e-03 2.525274e-03
#> [186] 2.113156e-03 1.757538e-03 1.452874e-03 1.193717e-03 9.748208e-04
#> [191] 7.912218e-04 6.382955e-04 5.117942e-04 4.078674e-04 3.230671e-04
#> [196] 2.543411e-04 1.990171e-04 1.547798e-04 1.196432e-04 9.192046e-05
#> [201] 7.019178e-05 5.327340e-05 4.018691e-05 3.013068e-05 2.245346e-05
#> [206] 1.663059e-05 1.224284e-05 8.957907e-06 6.514501e-06 1.614725e-05
pgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, wt, "Normal")
#>   [1] 5.607923e-34 1.447682e-33 3.714589e-33 9.473598e-33 2.401518e-32
#>   [6] 6.050955e-32 1.515407e-31 3.772263e-31 9.333457e-31 2.295361e-30
#>  [11] 5.610840e-30 1.363243e-29 3.292208e-29 7.902608e-29 1.885484e-28
#>  [16] 4.471416e-28 1.053991e-27 2.469444e-27 5.750847e-27 1.331175e-26
#>  [21] 3.062738e-26 7.004156e-26 1.592112e-25 3.597189e-25 8.078401e-25
#>  [26] 1.803268e-24 4.000998e-24 8.823682e-24 1.934217e-23 4.214390e-23
#>  [31] 9.127226e-23 1.964798e-22 4.204093e-22 8.941340e-22 1.890206e-21
#>  [36] 3.971844e-21 8.295689e-21 1.722226e-20 3.553906e-20 7.289540e-20
#>  [41] 1.486186e-19 3.011798e-19 6.066782e-19 1.214707e-18 2.417494e-18
#>  [46] 4.782345e-18 9.403695e-18 1.837972e-17 3.570774e-17 6.895564e-17
#>  [51] 1.323615e-16 2.525449e-16 4.789624e-16 9.029227e-16 1.691947e-15
#>  [56] 3.151453e-15 5.834767e-15 1.073805e-14 1.964343e-14 3.571905e-14
#>  [61] 6.456159e-14 1.159955e-13 2.071577e-13 3.677521e-13 6.489399e-13
#>  [66] 1.138282e-12 1.984686e-12 3.439790e-12 5.926127e-12 1.014869e-11
#>  [71] 1.727627e-11 2.923425e-11 4.917421e-11 8.222186e-11 1.366604e-10
#>  [76] 2.257903e-10 3.708308e-10 6.054188e-10 9.825325e-10 1.585076e-09
#>  [81] 2.541952e-09 4.052282e-09 6.421683e-09 1.011618e-08 1.584179e-08
#>  [86] 2.466119e-08 3.816343e-08 5.870922e-08 8.978268e-08 1.364924e-07
#>  [91] 2.062792e-07 3.099106e-07 4.628636e-07 6.872392e-07 1.014386e-06
#>  [96] 1.488475e-06 2.171329e-06 3.148893e-06 4.539847e-06 6.506964e-06
#> [101] 9.271982e-06 1.313490e-05 1.849884e-05 2.590173e-05 3.605648e-05
#> [106] 4.990129e-05 6.866226e-05 9.393040e-05 1.277557e-04 1.727606e-04
#> [111] 2.322758e-04 3.105009e-04 4.126924e-04 5.453808e-04 7.166194e-04
#> [116] 9.362638e-04 1.216284e-03 1.571103e-03 2.017968e-03 2.577333e-03
#> [121] 3.273260e-03 4.133824e-03 5.191498e-03 6.483523e-03 8.052224e-03
#> [126] 9.945263e-03 1.221580e-02 1.492255e-02 1.812968e-02 2.190660e-02
#> [131] 2.632745e-02 3.147056e-02 3.741753e-02 4.425217e-02 5.205918e-02
#> [136] 6.092268e-02 7.092440e-02 8.214187e-02 9.464633e-02 1.085006e-01
#> [141] 1.237572e-01 1.404556e-01 1.586210e-01 1.782621e-01 1.993696e-01
#> [146] 2.219150e-01 2.458497e-01 2.711047e-01 2.975909e-01 3.251992e-01
#> [151] 3.538021e-01 3.832553e-01 4.133994e-01 4.440630e-01 4.750653e-01
#> [156] 5.062195e-01 5.373357e-01 5.682250e-01 5.987026e-01 6.285909e-01
#> [161] 6.577230e-01 6.859454e-01 7.131202e-01 7.391271e-01 7.638648e-01
#> [166] 7.872521e-01 8.092283e-01 8.297529e-01 8.488052e-01 8.663832e-01
#> [171] 8.825023e-01 8.971938e-01 9.105025e-01 9.224853e-01 9.332086e-01
#> [176] 9.427465e-01 9.511784e-01 9.585872e-01 9.650575e-01 9.706737e-01
#> [181] 9.755189e-01 9.796736e-01 9.832145e-01 9.862139e-01 9.887392e-01
#> [186] 9.908524e-01 9.926099e-01 9.940628e-01 9.952565e-01 9.962313e-01
#> [191] 9.970225e-01 9.976608e-01 9.981726e-01 9.985805e-01 9.989036e-01
#> [196] 9.991579e-01 9.993569e-01 9.995117e-01 9.996314e-01 9.997233e-01
#> [201] 9.997935e-01 9.998467e-01 9.998869e-01 9.999171e-01 9.999395e-01
#> [206] 9.999561e-01 9.999684e-01 9.999773e-01 9.999839e-01 1.000000e+00

A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the NA procedure increases with larger numbers of probabilities of success:

set.seed(2)

# 10 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(10)
va <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
dpn <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, method = "Normal")
dpd <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -0.0346309 -0.0042919  0.0001378  0.0000000  0.0038447  0.0317044

# 100 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(100)
va <- sample(0:100, 100, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:100, 100, TRUE)
dpn <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, method = "Normal")
dpd <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -3.006e-05 -1.862e-07  0.000e+00  0.000e+00  1.759e-07  2.967e-05

# 1000 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(1000)
va <- sample(0:1000, 1000, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:1000, 1000, TRUE)
dpn <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, method = "Normal")
dpd <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -3.152e-08  0.000e+00  3.090e-12  0.000e+00  9.001e-10  3.707e-08

### Generalized Refined Normal Approximation

The Generalized Refined Normal Approximation (G-RNA) approach is requested with method = "RefinedNormal". It is based on a Normal distribution, whose parameters are derived from the theoretical mean, variance and skewness of the input probabilities of success.

set.seed(2)
pp <- runif(10)
wt <- sample(1:10, 10, TRUE)
va <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, wt, "RefinedNormal")
#>   [1] 5.100768e-32 7.816039e-32 1.959106e-31 4.880045e-31 1.208047e-30
#>   [6] 2.971921e-30 7.265798e-30 1.765311e-29 4.262362e-29 1.022751e-28
#>  [11] 2.438814e-28 5.779315e-28 1.361012e-27 3.185186e-27 7.407878e-27
#>  [16] 1.712136e-26 3.932484e-26 8.975930e-26 2.035985e-25 4.589352e-25
#>  [21] 1.028037e-24 2.288476e-24 5.062470e-24 1.112900e-23 2.431235e-23
#>  [26] 5.278047e-23 1.138660e-22 2.441116e-22 5.200621e-22 1.101015e-21
#>  [31] 2.316333e-21 4.842591e-21 1.006056e-20 2.076983e-20 4.260973e-20
#>  [36] 8.686571e-20 1.759748e-19 3.542530e-19 7.086575e-19 1.408697e-18
#>  [41] 2.782630e-18 5.461965e-18 1.065359e-17 2.064884e-17 3.976912e-17
#>  [46] 7.611065e-17 1.447413e-16 2.735176e-16 5.135966e-16 9.582999e-16
#>  [51] 1.776730e-15 3.273256e-15 5.992053e-15 1.089949e-14 1.970017e-14
#>  [56] 3.538058e-14 6.313772e-14 1.119541e-13 1.972495e-13 3.453144e-13
#>  [61] 6.006676e-13 1.038179e-12 1.782897e-12 3.042246e-12 5.157913e-12
#>  [66] 8.688860e-12 1.454315e-11 2.418568e-11 3.996319e-11 6.560867e-11
#>  [71] 1.070186e-10 1.734408e-10 2.792769e-10 4.467944e-10 7.101774e-10
#>  [76] 1.121527e-09 1.759679e-09 2.743061e-09 4.248282e-09 6.536785e-09
#>  [81] 9.992759e-09 1.517660e-08 2.289965e-08 3.432780e-08 5.112383e-08
#>  [86] 7.564129e-08 1.111860e-07 1.623661e-07 2.355550e-07 3.394997e-07
#>  [91] 4.861107e-07 6.914779e-07 9.771650e-07 1.371840e-06 1.913307e-06
#>  [96] 2.651012e-06 3.649099e-06 4.990081e-06 6.779222e-06 9.149662e-06
#> [101] 1.226837e-05 1.634294e-05 2.162919e-05 2.843967e-05 3.715276e-05
#> [106] 4.822249e-05 6.218875e-05 7.968764e-05 1.014618e-04 1.283702e-04
#> [111] 1.613972e-04 2.016606e-04 2.504176e-04 3.090698e-04 3.791651e-04
#> [116] 4.623982e-04 5.606082e-04 6.757744e-04 8.100102e-04 9.655553e-04
#> [121] 1.144767e-03 1.350110e-03 1.584150e-03 1.849543e-03 2.149024e-03
#> [126] 2.485405e-03 2.861561e-03 3.280420e-03 3.744950e-03 4.258135e-03
#> [131] 4.822941e-03 5.442277e-03 6.118927e-03 6.855467e-03 7.654163e-03
#> [136] 8.516833e-03 9.444692e-03 1.043817e-02 1.149671e-02 1.261856e-02
#> [141] 1.380053e-02 1.503782e-02 1.632377e-02 1.764978e-02 1.900514e-02
#> [146] 2.037702e-02 2.175055e-02 2.310888e-02 2.443348e-02 2.570445e-02
#> [151] 2.690096e-02 2.800177e-02 2.898579e-02 2.983278e-02 3.052397e-02
#> [156] 3.104271e-02 3.137515e-02 3.151071e-02 3.144261e-02 3.116818e-02
#> [161] 3.068902e-02 3.001109e-02 2.914456e-02 2.810352e-02 2.690563e-02
#> [166] 2.557147e-02 2.412399e-02 2.258773e-02 2.098813e-02 1.935073e-02
#> [171] 1.770044e-02 1.606093e-02 1.445398e-02 1.289904e-02 1.141287e-02
#> [176] 1.000927e-02 8.699011e-03 7.489773e-03 6.386301e-03 5.390581e-03
#> [181] 4.502114e-03 3.718233e-03 3.034469e-03 2.444914e-03 1.942594e-03
#> [186] 1.519822e-03 1.168521e-03 8.805066e-04 6.477360e-04 4.625001e-04
#> [191] 2.621189e-04 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
#> [196] 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
#> [201] 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
#> [206] 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00
pgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, wt, "RefinedNormal")
#>   [1] 5.100768e-32 1.291681e-31 3.250786e-31 8.130831e-31 2.021130e-30
#>   [6] 4.993051e-30 1.225885e-29 2.991196e-29 7.253558e-29 1.748106e-28
#>  [11] 4.186920e-28 9.966236e-28 2.357636e-27 5.542822e-27 1.295070e-26
#>  [16] 3.007206e-26 6.939690e-26 1.591562e-25 3.627547e-25 8.216899e-25
#>  [21] 1.849727e-24 4.138203e-24 9.200673e-24 2.032968e-23 4.464203e-23
#>  [26] 9.742250e-23 2.112885e-22 4.554002e-22 9.754623e-22 2.076477e-21
#>  [31] 4.392810e-21 9.235402e-21 1.929596e-20 4.006579e-20 8.267552e-20
#>  [36] 1.695412e-19 3.455160e-19 6.997690e-19 1.408427e-18 2.817123e-18
#>  [41] 5.599754e-18 1.106172e-17 2.171531e-17 4.236415e-17 8.213328e-17
#>  [46] 1.582439e-16 3.029852e-16 5.765028e-16 1.090099e-15 2.048399e-15
#>  [51] 3.825129e-15 7.098385e-15 1.309044e-14 2.398993e-14 4.369010e-14
#>  [56] 7.907068e-14 1.422084e-13 2.541625e-13 4.514120e-13 7.967264e-13
#>  [61] 1.397394e-12 2.435573e-12 4.218470e-12 7.260717e-12 1.241863e-11
#>  [66] 2.110749e-11 3.565064e-11 5.983632e-11 9.979950e-11 1.654082e-10
#>  [71] 2.724267e-10 4.458675e-10 7.251445e-10 1.171939e-09 1.882116e-09
#>  [76] 3.003643e-09 4.763322e-09 7.506383e-09 1.175466e-08 1.829145e-08
#>  [81] 2.828421e-08 4.346081e-08 6.636046e-08 1.006883e-07 1.518121e-07
#>  [86] 2.274534e-07 3.386394e-07 5.010055e-07 7.365605e-07 1.076060e-06
#>  [91] 1.562171e-06 2.253649e-06 3.230814e-06 4.602653e-06 6.515960e-06
#>  [96] 9.166972e-06 1.281607e-05 1.780615e-05 2.458537e-05 3.373504e-05
#> [101] 4.600341e-05 6.234634e-05 8.397554e-05 1.124152e-04 1.495680e-04
#> [106] 1.977905e-04 2.599792e-04 3.396668e-04 4.411286e-04 5.694988e-04
#> [111] 7.308960e-04 9.325566e-04 1.182974e-03 1.492044e-03 1.871209e-03
#> [116] 2.333607e-03 2.894215e-03 3.569990e-03 4.380000e-03 5.345555e-03
#> [121] 6.490322e-03 7.840432e-03 9.424583e-03 1.127413e-02 1.342315e-02
#> [126] 1.590855e-02 1.877011e-02 2.205053e-02 2.579549e-02 3.005362e-02
#> [131] 3.487656e-02 4.031884e-02 4.643777e-02 5.329323e-02 6.094740e-02
#> [136] 6.946423e-02 7.890892e-02 8.934709e-02 1.008438e-01 1.134624e-01
#> [141] 1.272629e-01 1.423007e-01 1.586245e-01 1.762743e-01 1.952794e-01
#> [146] 2.156564e-01 2.374070e-01 2.605159e-01 2.849493e-01 3.106538e-01
#> [151] 3.375548e-01 3.655565e-01 3.945423e-01 4.243751e-01 4.548991e-01
#> [156] 4.859418e-01 5.173169e-01 5.488276e-01 5.802702e-01 6.114384e-01
#> [161] 6.421274e-01 6.721385e-01 7.012831e-01 7.293866e-01 7.562922e-01
#> [166] 7.818637e-01 8.059877e-01 8.285754e-01 8.495636e-01 8.689143e-01
#> [171] 8.866147e-01 9.026757e-01 9.171296e-01 9.300287e-01 9.414415e-01
#> [176] 9.514508e-01 9.601498e-01 9.676396e-01 9.740259e-01 9.794165e-01
#> [181] 9.839186e-01 9.876368e-01 9.906713e-01 9.931162e-01 9.950588e-01
#> [186] 9.965786e-01 9.977471e-01 9.986276e-01 9.992754e-01 9.997379e-01
#> [191] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [196] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [201] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00
#> [206] 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00 1.000000e+00

A comparison with exact computation shows that the approximation quality of the RNA procedure increases with larger numbers of probabilities of success:

set.seed(2)

# 10 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(10)
va <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:10, 10, TRUE)
dpn <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, method = "RefinedNormal")
dpd <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -3.045e-02 -4.084e-03  1.727e-04  1.179e-05  4.324e-03  3.161e-02

# 100 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(100)
va <- sample(0:100, 100, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:100, 100, TRUE)
dpn <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, method = "RefinedNormal")
dpd <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -8.831e-06  0.000e+00  6.375e-09  1.200e-11  8.662e-07  1.333e-05

# 1000 random probabilities of success
pp <- runif(1000)
va <- sample(0:1000, 1000, TRUE)
vb <- sample(0:1000, 1000, TRUE)
dpn <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb, method = "RefinedNormal")
dpd <- dgpbinom(NULL, pp, va, vb)
idx <- which(dpn != 0 & dpd != 0)
summary((dpn - dpd)[idx])
#>       Min.    1st Qu.     Median       Mean    3rd Qu.       Max.
#> -1.980e-08  0.000e+00  5.010e-12  0.000e+00  1.564e-09  3.197e-08

### Processing Speed Comparisons

To assess the performance of the approximation procedures, we use the microbenchmark package. Each algorithm has to calculate the PMF repeatedly based on random probability vectors. The run times are then summarized in a table that presents, among other statistics, their minima, maxima and means. The following results were recorded on an AMD Ryzen 7 1800X with 32 GiB of RAM and Ubuntu 18.04.4 (running inside a VirtualBox VM; the host system is Windows 10 Education).

library(microbenchmark)
n <- 200
set.seed(2)
va <- sample(1:n, n, FALSE)
vb <- sample(1:n, n, FALSE)

f1 <- function() dgpbinom(NULL, runif(n), va, vb, method = "Normal")
f2 <- function() dgpbinom(NULL, runif(n), va, vb, method = "RefinedNormal")
f3 <- function() dgpbinom(NULL, runif(n), va, vb, method = "DivideFFT")

microbenchmark(f1(), f2(), f3())
#> Unit: milliseconds
#>  expr      min       lq     mean   median       uq       max neval cld
#>  f1() 2.043301 2.154251 2.311215 2.202251 2.284151  5.239100   100 a
#>  f2() 2.739700 2.902750 2.973090 2.951001 3.021851  4.508901   100  b
#>  f3() 5.082701 5.250451 6.537350 5.376802 7.745252 12.446401   100   c

Clearly, the G-NA procedure is the fastest, followed by the G-RNA method, which needs roughly 20-30% more time. But even the slowest approximate algorithm is around ten times as fast as G-DC-FFT.